The study aims to develop AICare, an interpretable mortality prediction model, using electronic medical records (EMR) from follow-up visits for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. AICare includes a multichannel feature extraction module and an adaptive feature importance recalibration module. It integrates dynamic records and static features to perform personalized health context representation learning. The dataset encompasses 13,091 visits and demographic data of 656 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients spanning 12 years. An additional public dataset of 4,789 visits from 1,363 hemodialysis (HD) patients is also considered. AICare outperforms traditional deep learning models in mortality prediction while retaining interpretability. It uncovers mortality-feature relationships and variations in feature importance and provides reference values. An AI-doctor interaction system is developed for visualizing patients’ health trajectories and risk indicators.